Aquatic mammals making my day! Part 2

0 beaver PA299293© Maria de Bruyn res

In 2019, I came across a few areas on walks where beavers were active and local residents were enjoying their presence. The animals weren’t shy and would come out in the mornings and evenings to eat and work on their lodges and dams, so I was able to observe them fairly often.

1 beaver PA299182 © Maria de Bruyn. res

In the intervening years, people have taken varied actions to deal with these mammals at the sites I visit, and my sightings have decreased. So, I was very pleased this past fall when I came across a beaver who had put aside his (or her) shyness and was coming out to swim often during daytime hours at one pond.

2 beaver PA299216 © Maria de Bruyn res

One day, this amiable animal decided to have a prolonged grooming session and gave me some good looks at its anatomy. S/he had what is considered a typical beaver tail: large and flat. Later I learned that beaver tails differ from animal to animal, with tail shapes (short, long, narrow, broad) being determined by individual and family traits.

4 beaver PA299318 © Maria de Bruyn res

Their large tails not only assist them in swimming and balancing on land — they also serve as a storage unit for fat that can be accessed during winter periods with less food available. Those tails can increase their body fat supply for cold weather by as much as 60%!

3 beaver PA299429© Maria de Bruyn res

The beaver has long digging claws on its front paws.

5 beaver PA299401© Maria de Bruyn res

6 beaver PA299228© Maria de Bruyn res

Their hind feet have two specialized toes which were described by Vernon Bailey in 1923 after he had studied young beavers in his home. He called these inner toes the combing claw and the louse-catching claw. The innermost toe he termed a coarse combing tool and the second toe a fine-toothed comb.

7 beaver PA299393© Maria de Bruyn res

The second toe, which has a double toenail, is now called a preening toe or grooming claw.

8 beaver PA299356 © Maria de Bruyn res

These toes are useful tools, as their comb-like action during grooming helps prevent the beavers’ soft fur from matting. (Unfortunately, the beaver only used his/her front paws while I watched; I’d like to see those back claws in action!)

9 beaver PA299390© Maria de Bruyn res

Beavers may spend almost 20% of their time on preening and grooming as this activity helps them remove burrs and parasites and aids in keeping their fur’s insulation and waterproof characteristics intact.

10 beaver PA299258© Maria de Bruyn res

An oil from abdominal glands is used to help waterproof their fur, too. Scents from these glands are further used to mark territory. And, oddly, castoreum (one of their castor gland secretions) smells and tastes like vanilla and has been used in human food preparation. Fortunately, it is difficult to obtain (the beaver must be anesthetized and “milked”) and scarcely used – about 292 lbs. (132 kg) yearly around the world.

14 beaver PA299403 © Maria de Bruyn res

The beaver’s well-developed whiskers are useful in dark water and narrow burrows because they help the animal detect objects.

12 beaver PA299407 © Maria de Bruyn res

Like birds and otters, beavers have a nictitating membrane to protect their eyes underwater. They can also keep water out of their ears and nostrils by closing anatomical valves.

15 beaver PA299232© Maria de Bruyn res

The beautiful beavers have been designated a keystone species because of their important role in creating environments suitable for other animals and plants. The habitats they create remove pollutants from ground and surface water. Their dams act as water filtration systems and help lessen compounds such as nitrogen and phosphorus so that we can obtain cleaner drinking water. In addition, some research has shown that the plants and algae in beaver ponds may help remove toxic metals from water, including lead, arsenic, copper, mercury, cadmium and selenium.

16 beaver PA299248© Maria de Bruyn res

There are ongoing efforts by some people in our area to get rid of beavers but fortunately an increasing number of advocates are looking for ways to coexist with beavers in urban and semi-urban areas. Researchers from local universities are aiding in the effort and hopefully this will lead to co-existence successes!

17 beaver PA299410 © Maria de Bruyn res

And some closing words…. When I was a child, I loved a small statue of three monkeys that sat on a shelf in our home: “speak no evil, see no evil, hear no evil.” I liked the message and the fact that it was advised by an animal. Unfortunately, over the past decades, the statuette did not survive intact, but I’ve kept it nonetheless.

18 speak no see no hear no evil IMG_0373© Maria de Bruyn res

Here below we have a new version, brought to you courtesy of my friendly beaver. 😊

19 speak no evil beaver PA299368 © Maria de Bruyn res

Speak no evil!

20 see no evil beaver PA299342© Maria de Bruyn res

See no evil!

21 hear no evil beaver PA299367© Maria de Bruyn res

Hear no evil!

22 beaver PA299247 © Maria de Bruyn res

And have a wonderful upcoming day, week, month and year!

Next up – back to birds of the woodpecker family!

Aquatic mammals making my day! Part 1

1 river otter P1154270© Maria de Bruyn res

While I love all wildlife, many of my blogs feature birds because my chances of seeing them are greater than seeing other animals. Mammals are a favorite of mine, however, and aquatic mammals are always a pleasure to see since spotting them is not always easy. That is certainly the case for the cute river otters (Lontra canadensis) like the one above.

4 otter PC251157© Maria de Bruyn

These river and pond residents are among the most elusive mammalian water residents for me.  At one pond that I visit regularly, they appear to have adopted an abandoned beaver lodge as their home. There, it is usually movement caught out of the corner of my eye that alerts me to their presence.

2 otter PC251094 © Maria de Bruyn res

Sometimes a view of the rump and tail is all I get as they barely lift their heads out of the water. It’s interesting to know, however, that their tail comprises up to 40% of their body length, helps speed them up to 8 mph (13 Km/h) in the water, and helps them dive up to 36 feet (11 m).

3 otter PA309843© Maria de Bruyn res

5 otter PA309953© Maria de Bruyn resThe otters don’t always appreciate spectators. Sometimes, they emerge from the water briefly and give me a view shrouded by vegetation before they dive back down. That’s frustrating when you’re trying to get a nice photo, but at least I’ve never scared them enough for them to sound their alarm scream, which apparently can be heard up to 1.5 m/2.4 km away!

8 beaver lodge IMG_0294© Maria de Bruyn resThe other day at another pond, I was lucky enough to see a pair close to shore. They were foraging and when they finally disappeared, they appeared to have entered a beaver lodge located next to a walking path (seen here). The beavers may have abandoned this lodge as they have at least two others in this park.

6 river otter P1154288 © Maria de Bruyn res

Researchers have not yet agreed on when otters enter their breeding season; it could be winter, late spring or summertime according to different studies. In any case, it seemed to me like this might be a mated pair.

7 river otter P1154340© Maria de Bruyn res

As they swam around, the couple would occasionally come together.

9 river otter P1154298 © Maria de Bruyn res

10 river otter P1154319 © Maria de Bruyn res

They didn’t stop to frolic, however, even though otters are known for their playfulness. They did blow some bubbles and I’ve learned that they can close their nostrils during dives to keep water out of their noses. Seeing them was a real treat! And their presence should indicate good fortune for the Sandy Creek Park since river otters are considered an indicator species that signal good water quality.

11 river otter P1154272 © Maria de Bruyn

In September, I wrote about seeing muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and North American beavers at a third reserve. Since then, I’ve had the good fortune to see both species there several times. The muskrats have especially graced me with their presence.

12 muskrat PC173212© Maria de Bruyn res

14 Brumley pond IMG_0308© Maria de Bruyn resThat’s lucky because last year our county had its 12th driest December month on record over the past 128 years. This was quite evident at the pond, which appeared to have shrunk by at least 30-40% during the autumn and early winter drought (my estimate). I’ve been surprised to see these animals still living there.

Because muskrats don’t tolerate dry heat well, they’ve been designated an indicator species for the effects of long-term climactic drying. Recent research has shown that their numbers and response to this phenomenon should be taken into account in scientific and environmental policy-making.

13 muskrat PC312704 © Maria de Bruyn res

To deal with dry heat, these mammals regulate blood flow to their feet and tail through a mechanism called regional heterothermia. This enables them to keep these appendages cooler than their body’s core. Another interesting anatomical feature is the muskrats’ specialized nostrils, which they can use to trap and recycle air after removing more oxygen before exhalation.

16 muskrat PC048728 © Maria de Bruyn res

At this particular pond, I’ve discovered that if I wait patiently for at least 20 minutes or so without other people walking by, it’s likely that one of the resident muskrats will surface to go for a swim and/or to forage for weedy food. (They can stay submerged for up to 15-17 minutes, so patience is warranted.) It’s often the appearance of small bubbles that alerts me to their presence and location.

18 muskrat PC048731© Maria de Bruyn res

Sometimes they emerge with their tails held high as if waving a signal flag – “I’m here!”

17 muskrat PC048698© Maria de Bruyn res

The muskrats dive down and come up with a mouth full of vegetation which they chew while swimming or sitting near the shore. They can also eat underwater since they’re able to chew with their mouth closed because they can close their lips behind their incisors.

20 muskrat PC048695© Maria de Bruyn res

Muskrats prefer to live in areas with at least 4-6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) of water where they build tunnels that lead from the pond or marsh bottom into burrows dug into banks. I now know approximately where their burrow is located as I’ve seen them emerge and submerge in a particular spot.

19 muskrat PC048688© Maria de Bruyn res

Our area just had a snowfall of 2.3 inches (5.8 cm) which will be melting in the coming days. Hopefully, the next time I visit this pond it will be fuller, and the muskrat residents will have a more spacious swimming and eating area. And then they will have good reason to wave their tails in celebration!  (Apologies for the less than stellar photos as I’ve had to use a short lens lately. Hope to have my long lens back soon. The photos in part 2 of this aquatic mammal series are better!)

21 muskrat PC312678© Maria de Bruyn res (2)

A surprise at the pond

1 Bynum IMG_0631© Maria de Bruyn res

A combination of abundant vegetation and some type of water — a creek, river, wetland, pond or lake — is one of my favorite types of natural area to visit for wildlife watching and photography. Water attracts wildlife and increases the chance of seeing something unexpected. 

This was the case recently at a local nature reserve. A few days earlier, I’d seen many goldfinches and warblers at one of the ponds, but this day it was very quiet. I descended a small slope to stand on a mudflat and was suddenly surprised by a large splash to my left.

2 Brumley pond IMG_0643 © Maria de Bruyn res

When I looked, I saw a largish head forging across the water in front of me. My first thought was that it was a muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) as there is no beaver lodge in this enclosed pond.

3 American beaver P8132481© Maria de Bruyn res

Muskrats and beavers look very similar, but beavers (Castor canadensis) tend to be much larger. This was a hefty individual who seemed fairly relaxed as s/he swam along.

4 American beaver P8132423© Maria de Bruyn res

As I watched the mammal swim back and forth for a while, I tentatively concluded that it was a beaver, based on my previous sightings of this rodent species. Still, I wasn’t quite sure and kept hoping that the animal would raise its tail so that I would have a decisive clue to its identity.

Beavers have large flat tails, while muskrats have long, thin tails. Finally, as s/he swam by again, I got a glimpse of the tail for a couple seconds and it was large and flat! Unfortunately, I didn’t get a photo of that (see a previous blog for some photos showing the beaver’s tail).

 

5 American beaver P8132456© Maria de Bruyn res

As I watched and took photos, a couple walked by with their dog and stopped to watch as well. I moved down the path and heard the gentleman exclaim, “Oh, it’s a beaver!” I turned and he explained that he had thought the swimmer was a muskrat, but he had just seen the tail, too.

6 American beaver IMG_0256© Maria de Bruyn res

The aquatic mammal climbed up onto a log for a bit to groom and relax and, as the couple remarked, almost seemed to be posing for me. The beaver kept its back to me most of the time though. 

 

14 American beaver P8132476 © Maria de Bruyn res

I began to walk back down the path in hopes of getting a head-on view if the beaver decided to swim again. S/he did indeed slip back into the water to resume swimming back and forth. And then to my delight, a small head popped up going the other direction!

7 American beaver and muskrat P8132482 © Maria de Bruyn res

For some reason, I just assumed that it was a baby beaver, swimming around under the watchful eye of a parent. The newly arrived rodent seemed to be very intent on eating and dove down into the pond to bring up some tasty vegetation.8 Muskrat P8132671 © Maria de Bruyn res

It then swam over to the mudflat where I had been, and I ventured back there.

9 Muskrat P8132493© Maria de Bruyn res

Moving slowly and maintaining a good distance from the dining animal, I was able to get some good views as it enjoyed its meal.

10 Muskrat P8132618© Maria de Bruyn res

11 Muskrat P8132497 © Maria de Bruyn res

12 Muskrat P8132506 © Maria de Bruyn resWhile the beaver’s fur remained sleek on its head and back after being submerged a while, the little one’s fur stuck together in clumps all over its head and body. To me it looked a bit like a punk teenager — an analogy that undoubtedly came to mind because I was thinking of it as a baby or adolescent beaver.

This was one of the cutest wildlife spottings I had had in recent weeks, and I was thoroughly enjoying it. But I began doubting if this animal was indeed a beaver. I never saw its tail but at one point, I could see some orange teeth that reminded me of beaver incisors.

13 Muskrat teeth P8132647© Maria de Bruyn res

Of course, the diner didn’t care and just kept diving for more veggies to eat. The large beaver appeared to have left in the meantime.

15 Muskrat P8132510© Maria de Bruyn res

It was when I was reviewing identity characteristics of beavers vs muskrats while writing this blog that I ultimately came to a final conclusion about whom I had been watching. This was based on several websites that provided some good ID clues:

Beavers tend to weigh about 35-70 or even up to 100 lbs (15-30 or even 45 kg), Muskrats generally weigh only about 2-5 lbs (0.9-2.3 kg).

Beavers’ ears protrude from their heads as they swim around (first photo below), while muskrats’ ears lie flat (second photo below). Beavers also have larger noses.

16 American beaver P8132453© Maria de Bruyn res

17 Muskrat P8132673 © Maria de Bruyn res

Muskrats dive down to get vegetation from pond bottoms to eat, which my second visitor was very busy doing indeed. Beavers strip bark and leaves from trees and in my experience (having watched beavers eat close by a couple years ago), they can be quite noisy chewers.

18 Muskrat P8132574© Maria de Bruyn res

I’d enjoyed the idea of having seen a parent-and-child beaver duo but, in hindsight, I concluded that I’d been watching a beaver and a muskrat sharing pond space.

19 American beaver P8132475 © Maria de Bruyn res

This was also a very cool event since neither one had been shy. A lack of other human passersby (only the one couple strolled by in the space of almost an hour) may have made them feel comfortable. It was certainly a treat for me!

20 Muskrat P8132665© Maria de Bruyn res

Next up: fateful days for frogs….

Mammals on the move

As spring progresses, we’re seeing ever more mammals on the move. They’re mating and having young and in search of extra sustenance for these activities. The animals whom we unfortunately see dead alongside — or on — roads often include members of the rodent group: groundhogs, squirrels and chipmunks.

Would you be surprised to discover that about 40% of all mammal species are rodents? When people hear that term, many immediately think of rats and mice (i.e., “vermin”) but the group is more diverse. What they all have in common is a pair of incisor teeth in their upper and lower jaws which never stop growing.

groundhog P3203437© Maria de Bruyn (2) res    groundhog P2249052© Maria de Bruyn sgd res

The woodchucks (another name for groundhogs, Marmota monax) whom I’ve seen the past couple months have been seeking food at two local reserves. The name woodchuck does not indicate one of their activities, however. It comes from the Native American name “wuchak,” which means “digger”.

groundhog P3203312© Maria de Bruyn (2) res

These rodents are fairly solitary but live near family members. They greet one another, with one individual touching the other’s mouth with his or her nose. Their ever-growing teeth are bright white, unlike the dingier teeth of other rodents.

groundhog P3203339 © Maria de Bruyn (2) res  groundhog P2249047© Maria de Bruyn (2 res)

They have both summer and winter dens in well-drained areas. The summer abode is near food sources and the winter one is situated near areas with protective cover. Their ear canals are kept clean while they burrow because their round ears can cover the auditory opening, so no dirt or debris gets in. They usually have more than one entrance to dens with multiple tunnels and spaces, including an escape hole!

groundhog P3203375© Maria de Bruyn (2 res)

groundhog P2248981© Maria de Bruyn res

If there is danger, they call out a warning by giving a high-pitched whistle, which has led to them also being called “whistle pigs.” They also use other vocalizations and scent glands to communicate with one another. To escape predators, these hefty mammals can climb trees.

groundhog P3203306© Maria de Bruyn (2) res  groundhog P3203338 (2) (2) res

groundhog P2249010 © Maria de Bruyn res

We may not see the groundhogs too often — unless you have a garden. They enjoy eating alfalfa, dandelions and clover, but I can attest to their penchant for savoring tasty vegetables like tomatoes. One came up onto my porch to sample the wares in my container garden! In my experience, however, they tend not to stay around too long.

Eastern gray squirrel P2090522© Maria de Bruyn (2 res)

Eastern gray squirrel P2218598© Maria de Bruyn (2 res)A rodent that we may see much more often in yards, parks, public gardens and along trails are the Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). Some people find them amusing to watch, while others wish they would just go away — especially birders who end up spending more on bird food than they planned because these clever rodents find innumerable ways to get up onto bird feeders. Facebook groups for birders regularly have postings by people asking for suggestions on how to thwart squirrels from gaining access to their feeders.

Eastern gray squirrel IMG_0418© Maria de Bruyn (2) resI, too, continue with ongoing efforts to outwit these feeder marauders. They are not shy, coming up on the front porch to look in on my indoor cats.

They jump from trees onto the roof and then perch at the edge, calculating whether they could accomplish a far enough jump to reach some feeders.

Eastern gray squirrel P6170627© Maria de Bruyn (2) res      Eastern gray squirrel P6170625© Maria de Bruyn (2 ) res

I’ve moved my feeder poles away from trees, roofs, tall bushes and shrubs numerous times since squirrels can successfully launch themselves to a feeder 10 feet away.

Eastern gray squirrel P5255669© Maria de Bruyn (2 res) In my yard, they have gnawed at the bottom of a baffle designed to keep them off poles as they try to pull it down. Their ability to chew through plastic and metal may be one reason that they manage to keep their dentition to “normal” lengths since their teeth grow about 6 inches per year.

Eastern gray squirrel P5255651© Maria de Bruyn (2) res

Eastern gray squirrel P5255633© Maria de Bruyn (2) res

In the past week, one especially athletic individual has figured out how to jump over the baffle from the ground to get to feeders.

Eastern gray squirrel P2197722© Maria de Bruyn (2) res

Eastern gray squirrel P2197741© Maria de Bruyn (2 res)

I raised the baffle and put chicken wire on it in an experiment to see if this would deter this determined rodent. It didn’t. I finally put a second sloping baffle above the tube baffle and the squirrel slid off in its latest attempt to get to the fruit and nuts.

Eastern gray squirrel PA241931© Maria de Bruyn res (2)Many nature observers do admire squirrels’ cleverness. For example, squirrels spend a lot of time hiding food in caches dug in the ground. To outwit other squirrels and rodents who might be watching, they will prepare a hole, pretend to deposit food, and cover it up. Then they will go somewhere else where they don’t see a rival watching and hide the food in another place.

An anatomical peculiarity these animals share with other rodents is that they are unable to burp, have heartburn or vomit. (How this was discovered is probably something I don’t want to know.) They also can suffer from insects, carrying ticks and having botflies lay eggs under the skin as happened to this individual whom I spotted in a city park.

Eastern gray squirrel PA170160© Maria de Bruyn ed (2) res

Scientists have determined that gray squirrels’ spatial memory is excellent as they later are able to retrieve about 80% of food stored in their numerous (up to several thousand!) caches. One university study showed that almost two years after some squirrels learned to solve a tricky problem to gain access to a desire food, they were still able to recall the solution to the problem.

Eastern gray squirrel P6267310© Maria de Bruyn res (2)

The squirrels are quite vocal and have a variety of calls, including chattering, squeaking, raspy noises and one particular call that I have come to recognize as a warning that a hawk is near the yard. And they not only avoid predators but have been shown to be able to remember whether people are their friends or enemies!

In our area, the number of gray squirrels is quite high, even when they are often hunted and caught by local predators. It would surprise some of my friends and neighbors, I’m sure, if they learned that, in July 1856, a crowd went to New York City’s (NYC) Central Park to see what was then considered a rare gray squirrel! Other cities also had low numbers; in 1847, Philadelphia initiated one of the first squirrel reintroduction projects, followed by NYC, Boston and other municipalities.

Eastern chipmunk PC292310© Maria de Bruyn (2) resA rodent that many people tend to like more than groundhogs and squirrels is the diminutive Eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus). The “cuteness” factor undoubtedly plays a role as these active little animals do tend to look a bit endearing.

   

They also look amusing to many people when they are filling their cheek pouches to carry food home. These pouches can stretch to three times the size of their heads so that they can build up a sizeable store of saved food for winter.

Eastern chipmunk IMG_0243© Maria de Bruyn (2 res)

Because they have two litters a year, encounter so much competition for seed and nuts, and because they must work hard to gather supplies, I have on occasion given them a little dish of food for them to gather with ease. Since I just love watching them, I get something out of it, too.

Eastern chipmunk IMG_0273 © Maria de Bruyn (2 res)

Eastern chipmunk P6094693© Maria de Bruyn (2 res)

These rodents live in burrows dug about 3 feet underground. The multiple “rooms” (one used for nesting and others for food storage) can be connected by alleyways up to 30 feet or so in length. They can also climb; one individual in my yard has been imitating the squirrels who run up my bird feeder poles.

Eastern chipmunk PB283524© Maria de Bruyn res   Eastern chipmunk PB283523© Maria de Bruyn res (2)

Eastern chipmunk P2010412© Maria de Bruyn (2 res

My observations have convinced me that these little creatures are very brave. When I’ve spread some bird seed on the ground, they will join the towhees, robins, sparrows and other birds to feed. When squirrels move in and try to chase them off, they will retreat but only for a minute or so and then they return to continue gathering seed.

Eastern chipmunk P3022838© Maria de Bruyn ed (2) res

One day, some white-tailed deer moved in to also eat some of the seed on the ground. A chipmunk was there, and one deer very tenderly nuzzled it a bit in a non-aggressive way. The brave little rodent, confronted with a touch from a being hundreds of times its size, just kept filling its pouch! It was a touching moment (poorly photographed through the screened porch but nevertheless showing the event).

Eastern chipmunk P1304359 © Maria de Bruyn ed res

Because chipmunks don’t tend to eat vegetable garden plants or figure out ways to deplete bird food sources, they may be the rodent that people like best among the garden and field visitors.

Eastern chipmunk P1304354© Maria de Bruyn res (2)

Eastern chipmunk P3022806 © Maria de Bruyn (2 res)

If you take the time to just observe these three commonly seen mammals, however, you might find that they all have behaviors you find interesting and/or amusing. So please try not to hit them on the road. Tolerating their presence, especially given how much of their wild habitat has been destroyed, means that we are at least helping promote biodiversity in our environment.

Eastern chipmunk P3044769 © Maria de Bruyn (2) res

Finding joy in troubled times

While working on photos for other blogs, it occurred to me that it might be more productive right now to focus on what we, everywhere, are facing with the current pandemic. It’s my hope that as many of us as possible will survive, thrive and overcome the distress we are facing. As we hunker down, like this beautiful mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), we can intensify our nature observations – or begin paying more attention to the wildlife around us when we do go for walks.

 

Practicing social quarantine and distancing is essential –- even if we live somewhere where authorities are not yet requiring this. Keeping away physically from those outside our households can protect them as well as ourselves. In most places, social distancing rules still allow us to get outside for walks in the fresh air and nature. I have never seen so many people, including families with children, in the local nature reserves and that is a welcome sight. Hopefully, a side effect of this will be much more social support and advocacy for environmental conservation and expansion of natural areas, parks and reserves now and in the future -– that would be an unexpected positive outcome to the measures we are taking to get through these troubled times! (Yellow trout lily above, Erythronium americanum).

For people who haven’t had the pleasure of getting out much on walks, I wanted to share something about how to possibly enjoy nature even more. From my perspective, a key element is learning to practice patience and to stop, wait, watch and explore frequently. Here are some examples of what you might find. (Common Blue Violet, Viola sororia)

Looking down at the ground can be a fruitful exercise, especially in spring. Fresh new blooms are emerging and can delight us with their beauty (like the Eastern spring beauties, Claytonia virginica).

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) – the leaves look like jigsaw puzzle pieces

Rue anemone (Thalictrum thalictroides)                  Tiny bluet (Houstonia pusilla)

Common chickweed (Stellaria media)

   

Little sweet Betsy (Trillium cuneatum)

   

Ground ivy – also known as creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea)

Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) and purple deadnettle (Lamium purpureum)

If you are out with kids, you can pay more attention to the plants –- take photos of them (most reserves and parks don’t want people to dig up and pick flowers) and then look them up at home and learn about them. Or make a game out of fallen leaves –- find three with very different shapes and identify the trees.

If you look closely at the flowers, you might glimpse small bugs flitting around the blooms. If you have a camera or phone camera, try to get a photo. When you enlarge it, you might find that you have actually seen a beautiful fly, bee or other insect whose shape and colors you couldn’t see with the naked eye. If you want to identify it, post the photo to the site BugGuide.net, where entomologists can perhaps tell you what species you saw.

Parasitic fly (Goninii, above)

 

 

Greater bee fly (Bombylius major)

Various species of syrphid flies are shown below; they are often mistaken for small bees. The first photos are all of the species Toxomerus geminatus.

 

Male                                                               Female

And below the male and female together.

 

A species of syrphid fly with a striped abdomen (Syrphus torvus) is characterized by “hairy” eyes (more so in males, like this one). Click to enlarge and see the hairs.

A larger species, Brachypalpus oarus, is not so colorful.

Even if you can’t get outside much, you might see an interesting insect around your house. For example, this male brown-tipped conehead katydid (Neoconocephalus triops) appeared on my porch when I was sweeping.

Butterflies are really starting to fly around now. The bluish spring azures (Celastrina ladon) are abundant right now.

I’ve been seeing falcate orangetips (Anthocharis midea), too.

Damselflies are also starting to appear; we tend to see them earlier than the dragonflies, who spread their wings horizontally when they alight on vegetation. This fragile forktail damselfly (Ischnura posita) was getting covered in yellow pine pollen –- much of North Carolina’s Piedmont region is bedecked in yellow dust during the spring weeks when the pine trees emit clouds of pollen.

 

Looking in the water can be productive, too. One day, I spent some time scanning the edge of a pond where the water was shallow enough to see the bottom. As I watched little fish darting to and fro, I suddenly noticed something larger moving about quickly. I looked more intently and discovered Eastern newts (also called red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) down there – the first time I had seen these amphibians!!

When you see an Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) scurrying across the leaves in the forest or even alongside a road, stop and watch a bit. I did the other day and saw the mammal locate a winter stash and dig up some food it had stored. This article describes their storage process and reveals that they can probably remember where up to 95% of their stashes are hidden!

Paying attention to fallen logs can reveal beauty, too. This tree that fell across a creek ended up providing a growing place for common blue violets (Viola sororia).

As I walked by some other fallen trees, a common five-lined skink (Plestiodon fasciatus) popped briefly into view, gave me a pensive look and then disappeared into the leaf and twig litter.

Looking up at the trees, you might be lucky to see a wasp nest. The paper wasps (Polistes) make compartmentalized nests, with a place for each individual egg.

Or you may see a large bald-faced hornet’s nest (Dolichovespula maculata).

               

If you take the time to watch birds, you may see them engaged in looking for food (like insects, nuts, berries and seeds).

Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor)         Brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla)

Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata)                          Cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)

 

Black & white warbler (Mniotilta varia)    Field sparrow (Spizella pusilla)

On one of my latest walks, I heard rapid knocking and was able to watch a yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius) engaged in beginning a new series of sap holes, which provide sweet drinking spots for themselves and other birds.

If you’re able to look at trees, bushes or nest boxes during walks or from your windows, you might catch birds collecting materials for their nests. Just the other day, I saw a Carolina chickadee gathering up some spider web to use in a nest.

If you find a nest, be sure to maintain a good distance, but then watch the parents bringing food to their nestlings after they hatch. If you’re lucky, you may even see the babies fledge! And if you are not near any trees, watch some birds at their nests through webcams online: https://www.allaboutbirds.org/cams/ – https://www.audubon.org/birdcamshttps://birdwatchinghq.com/live-bird-cams/
https://birdcams.live/

If, at some point, we are “stuck” inside, we can follow this link to international wildlife days. If we find one to celebrate during our quarantine, we can spend some time learning about that animal and drawing or painting it. And we can do the same for other environmental days as well at this link.

To end, I’d like to share some resources with free online nature activities – for children and adults! Not all the sites require having a yard; even readers living in apartments could get out for a short walk and find something to see, investigate, etc.  Enjoy!!