My hummer summer, part 2 — beauty in flight, beauty at rest

ruby-throated-hummingbird-i77a8438-maria-de-bruynIn my previous blog, I mentioned that the ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilocus colubris) had a greater variety of flowering plants to visit in my yard this year and that increased the size and diversity of their nectar buffet. The availability of multiple food sources also meant that they spent a bit more time visiting – they didn’t just dash to a feeder, perch or hover for a drink and then take off. They visited feeders, different blooms and took little rests between meals, giving me numerous chances to watch them and practice my hummingbird photography – a win-win for both us!

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One of their favorite flowers were the lantanas (Lantana), which are also a favorite of mine as they attract many smaller pollinators such as bees and butterflies and are still profusely blooming in the latter half of October.

 

 

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This year, several types of sage brightened my gardens. Some deep blue Brazilian sage plants (Salvia guaranitica), kindly donated to me by Gail, a fellow birder, added color and provided the hummers with deep blooms into which they could insert their long bills.

 

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ruby-throated-hummingbird-i77a7519-maria-de-bruyn-resA small-leaf sage (also known as Festival or little-leaf sage, Salvia microphylla “San Carlos Festival”) provided an ongoing splash of deep red blooms that attracted the hummers over and over again. This plant not only graced the garden in the summer but is still blooming profusely now, making it another one of my favorites. A couple other different red sages and a red beebalm (Monarda didyma) were good nectar choices but they didn’t bloom as long or in such abundance. Perhaps next year, they will have gained strength.

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ruby-throated-hummingbird-i77a1160-maria-de-bruyn-resThe two stonecrop plants (Hylotelephium Autumn joy), in my front garden, with their rounded bunches of little pink flowers, had hummer visitors on a few occasions, but these are not one of their preferred blooms. The milkweed plants (Asclepias syriaca) also only had a few visits as far as I could tell.

 

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And it was the same story for the blue balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus), which does get its fair share of bees.

 

 

 

ruby-throated-hummingbird-i77a2198-maria-de-bruyn-resI had planted cardinal flowers (Lobelia cardinalis), which unfortunately didn’t get any flowers. I did see a bird visiting this plant species near Bolin Creek, however. The same happened with a trumpet vine (Campsis radicans), but at a vine cluster near the Haw River I saw how they inserted their heads entirely into the tubular blooms.

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In between feedings, the hummingbirds will perch to watch for intruders into “their space”. But they also will take sun-baths, pointing their faces upward and puffing themselves up.

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They will then change shape, stretching their necks and spreading their wings and tail feathers to expose as much of their bodies as possible to the sunlight.

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They may relieve themselves while they are in flight and then later take a little power nap of a few seconds.

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Grooming is also a frequent activity – these little avians make sure that they stay just as beautiful as the sweet flowers that they frequent!

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When the males turn their heads so that the light hits them in different ways, they do a nice job of demonstrating that their bright gorget colors are not in the feathers themselves but the result of prism cells in their feathers that change how the light is reflected depending on the angle we see.

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ruby-throated-hummingbird-i77a6366-maria-de-bruyn-resWhen they’re done sun bathing, grooming and resting, the hummingbirds need to take off again. However, their feet are so tiny that they can’t walk and, when they lift off, they also don’t have the foot strength to push.  So they rise into the air using the power of their wings, quickly flapping as they set off and rapidly reaching their usual rate of about 50-53 beats per second.

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ruby-throated-hummingbird-i77a7167-maria-de-bruyn-resMy last summer hummingbird residents appear to have left for their Central American wintering grounds on 7 October, just before Hurricane Matthew arrived in North Carolina. I really hope that they were able to get through the windy environment without problems as they began their long migratory journeys and I am already looking forward to seeing them arrive next spring. In the meantime, I’m keeping a couple feeders up in case another hummer species decides to over-winter here – and the Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis), Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) can continue to use the ant guards over the feeders as their preferred watering holes.

 

Water-logged and soggy birds

Carolina wren I77A2794© Maria de Bruyn resMy original intent was to write only one more blog this year, but our current weather has induced me to write two (the other will follow on the last day of 2015). During the past week, our region has had more than our “fair share” of rain. Fortunately, the house is not downstream or downhill of flowing water so that flooding is not a concern (and having helped my parents when their home was flooded with about 5 feet of water, I know that is a real pain to say the least). But the yard is so water-logged that small pools of water are scattered in many places and the ground cover squishes when we walk on it. Combined with very high temperatures for this time of year, it seems that El Niño is really making itself known – and the birds like this Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus) must be getting tired of being water-logged as well!

Sayings such as “like water off a duck’s back” imply that birds don’t really get bothered by water pouring from the heavens, but that is probably only partly true. During recent downpours, I saw – through the back porch screen – a Carolina wren and Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) hanging out on a downspout under the house eaves, while a brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) clung to the brick wall under the roof overhang to get out of the rain.

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Birds that regularly dive underwater do have denser feathers, which helps prevent water from penetrating through to their skin, as is the case for this Canada goose (Branta canadensis).

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But birds’ feathers are not inherently waterproof – when we see water droplets beading on their backs and tails, as in the case of this brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) and blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), it’s because the birds have made them water-resistant to some extent.

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This happens in two ways. On the one hand, birds such as pigeons, herons, hawks and owls have special feathers called “powder downs” or “pulviplumes”, which are covered in a dusty powder containing keratin that disintegrates and becomes a waterproof coating. They spread the powder to other feathers while preening.

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Great blue heron (Ardea herodias)

brown-headed nuthatch I77A0090© Maria de Bruyn resOther birds have a uropygial (preen) gland located at the base of their tails. It produces a substance containing oil and wax that the birds spread on their feathers when they groom. Often, they will rub their head against the preen gland and then spread the oil by rubbing their head against other feathers, a behavior that this female red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) seemed to be doing when she was grooming. The wax then helps make the feathers more flexible and water-resistant, which explains the water beads we see on their feathers when it rains.

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Dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis)

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Eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)

     Pine warbler (Setophaga pinus)

It may be that some birds are less successful in spreading the powder and wax to their head feathers, or they rub all the oil or powder off their heads onto other feathers. This may account for the “bad hair day” look some of them get when it rains for hours on end. These spiky “Mohawks” often appear in Northern cardinals and Eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis).

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Other birds seem to especially get soggy feathers on the crowns of their heads just above their eyes. This may be why we see so many of them shaking their heads vigorously to get rid of the dampness on their pates.

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Pine warbler                                              White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

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And some birds just get an overall scruffy look when it rains hard, like this red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus).

 

 

 

 

Eastern bluebird I77A0155© Maria de Bruyn resThe water-logged look does seem to give some birds an angry or disgruntled appearance; I can certainly sympathize since endless days of rain – even in warmer temperatures – is one of my least favorite types of weather. It seems that overcast days and showers are continuing in our local forecast for some time to come. So the poor birds have to put up with the wet weather a while longer. We’ll all appreciate the sunlight when it comes back in force – hopefully soon!

A varied palate – hummingbirds’ choice of foods

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As promised, one more blog on hummingbirds before I move to another topic; their presence always brings me enjoyment and I know other people who are enamored with these tiny birds, too. Also, although autumn has come, I still have a couple ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) at my feeders. And a couple days ago I had the privilege of seeing a species new to me, the buff-bellied hummingbird (Amazilia yucatanensis), which has only visited the state of North Carolina once before (at least as far as human witnesses are concerned)!

DK7A2528© Maria de Bruyn resThe hummers have a varied diet, including mainly insects (mosquitoes, gnats, fruit flies, small bees), spiders, tree sap and sweet nectar (or sugar water). They tend to feed about 5-10 times per hour during the day and need about 10 calories of nutrition each day.

 

It is a lot easier to catch them drinking nectar than catching insects (apologies for the blurred photos)!

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Hummingbirds use their long tubular tongues as elastic micro-pumps to obtain nectar. This enables them to lick a flower up to 20 times per second as they gather food. And although we can’t see it when just looking at them, they have forked tongues (like snakes)!

 

 

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DK7A4497© Maria de Bruyn2The hummers visit a variety of flowers to drink their sweet nectar, often preferring orange or red flowers but certainly not avoiding others.In my garden, this includes cardinal flowers (Lobelia cardinalis), hollyhocks (Alcea), yellow passionflower (Passiflora lutea) and lantana (Lantana).

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In nature reserves, I’ve seen them visiting morning glories (Ipomoea), ironweed (Vernonia) and trumpet vines (Campsis radicans).

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Their long bills, tubular tongues and slim bodies make it easy for them to drink from long flowers, but sometimes they will simply pierce the base of a flower to obtain nectar, or use a hole already made there by an insect.

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Light-colored flowers are not shunned as food sources, however!

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Bean plants and gerbera daisies (Gerbera)  were on the menu at the Translating Traditions farm.

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At my house, the hummers visit the nectar feeders with great regularity, presumably because the food is very easily available there. A little known fact about the hummingbirds is that, compared to all other birds, their brains are the largest in comparison to body size. They remember where feeders are from year to year and also can recognize the people who fill the feeders. When the nectar is low and I appear, a hummer will sometimes hover and chitter in my direction at length; I really do think it is warning me that it’s time to prepare another serving.

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The buff-bellied hummingbird breeds in Mexico and south Texas. When they migrate, it is in a north-eastern direction, but the only previous recorded visit of one to North Carolina was in 2007. Now there is one hanging out at a couple’s home in the town of Winston-Salem, so I accompanied three fellow birders to go see it. Our 90-minute drive there was rewarded by a view of the bird within about 15 minutes and we stayed for almost two hours watching it come and go along with some ruby-throated hummingbirds.

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These hummingbirds have bellies with a light orange-yellow hue, brighter orange tail feathers and a bright green back and head. In contrast to the ruby-throated hummingbird’s straight dark bill, they have a reddish, curved bill. These lovely little birds appear to be the least studied species among the hummingbirds in the USA.

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Two years ago, I had a rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) visit my nectar feeder after he had migrated here in winter from the far North. This year, I’ll leave at least one feeder up again after the ruby-throats take off for warmer climes in case some wintering hummers need food. And I’ll look forward to seeing my regular residents again next summer!

 

 

More information:

http://www.livescience.com/51904-hummingbird-tongue-pump.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/08/science/the-hummingbirds-tongue-how-it-works.html?_r=0

Birdie beauty – hummingbird preening and grooming

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ruby-throated hummingbird DK7A1226© Maria de Bruyn resIt has been great to welcome back the sun and dispel some of the gloom resulting from the record number of rainy days we’ve had. Watching the ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) in my yard and at nature reserves is also a day brightener and has taught me that these tiny avians are quite fastidious, grooming often and at length.

 

 

They cannot use their feet to hop or walk; they only cling to perches and shuffle a bit.

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They do use their claws as a “comb” to groom their heads and necks and to scratch itches.

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Using oil from a gland near their tail, they cover their iridescent feathers with the oil to help clean them.

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When you see them rubbing their long beaks on a twig, they are wiping off debris and pollen.

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The youngest birds have a groove in their beak but this smooths out by the winter.

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When the hummers look up in the sky, while sitting all puffed up on a branch, they may be taking a sun bath.

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A tiny catnap – or hummer nap – can also be observed now and then. This is understandable since their little hearts beat at 1220 times per minute while they fly; this lessens to about 250 times per minute when they are at rest.

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You can sometimes tell the sex of the hummingbird by its tail feathers. The tips are white and rounded in both females and first-year males, who do not yet have fully colored throats

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In the adult males, the tail feathers have sharp black points.

The red gorget (throat) feathers that give this species its common name are seen in the adult males. Very occasionally, a female will have one or two black or one red feather there, but it is generally a young male that has one red throat feather.

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After nesting, females may look somewhat tattered and molt their feathers, like this one in July. The regular molting period is autumn through about March and that is when the juvenile males develop their their red throats.

 

 

Both female and male ruby-throated hummers have a small patch of white feathers behind their dark eyes.

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One thing is for sure – all these little avians are beautiful to see and watch!

More information:

http://www.hummingbirdworld.com/h/behavior.htm

Russet-colored shorebird beauties – feminists among the waders!

ruddy turnstone IMG_8605©Maria de Bruyn resOne of my favorite shorebirds is the small sandpiper called a ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres). Their coloring is a mix of black, white and reddish colors, with adults being more brightly colored when mating and breeding.

These birds are very territorial during the breeding season; they recognize variations in plumage patterns and can identify individuals, which helps them chase away intruders into their territories. Pairs are monogamous when breeding and may mate for several years.

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ruddy turnstone IMG_8651©Maria de Bruyn resWhen they fly, a stunning pattern is revealed in their spread wings, with striking white patches and bars.

The name turnstone comes from the fact that the birds tend to turn over stones while foraging for insects, crustaceans, worms and mollusks. Several birds may cooperate to overturn larger rocks. This carnivorous diet is supplemented with moss, fruit and berries. Occasionally, the turnstones have also been seen to prey on the eggs of other birds but this behavior appears to be uncommon.

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They search for their food on rocky outcroppings, among stones, in sand and the ground, inserting their bills into the earth or flipping over seaweed to find meals hidden there.

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ruddy turnstone IMG_8782©Maria de BruynThese small birds breed in Northern arctic and tundra regions and then migrate South in the winter, quite often returning to the same wintering grounds each year. Their chicks leave the nest within hours after hatching and abandon the nest within a day. It is the males who take on the major childrearing tasks, guarding the territorial perimeters and warning the female when predators (owls, merlins, gulls, foxes) are near. They also show the young fledglings where to find food after the females have left to pursue other activities.

Outside breeding season and during winter migration, the birds are quite sociable. They have been seen preening and grooming for long periods.

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The populations of ruddy turnstones are fairly stable and they are not threatened at this time – good news for the bird lovers among us!